Neuro-ophthalmology is a subspecialty that combines the fields of neurology and ophthalmology, often dealing with complex systemic diseases that have manifestations in the visual system. Since diagnostic studies can be normal in patients with significant neuro-ophthalmic disease, a detailed medical history and physical exam is essential and neuro-ophthalmologists often spend a significant amount of time with their patients. Common pathology referred to a neuro-ophthalmologist includes afferent visual system disorders such as optic neuritis, optic neuropathy, papilledema, brain tumors or strokes and efferent visual system disorders anisocoria, diplopia, ophthalmoplegia, ptosis, nystagmus, blepharospasm, seizures of the eye or eye muscles, and hemifacial spasm. Patients often have co-existing disease in other fields like rheumatology, endocrinology, oncology, cardiology, etc. Thus the neuro-ophthalmologist is often a liaison between the ophthalmology department and other departments in the medical center.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system. The symptoms generally come on slowly over time. Early in the disease the most obvious are shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement, and difficulty with walking. Thinking and behavioral problems may also occur. Dementia becomes common in the advanced stages of the disease. Depression and anxiety are also common, occurring in more than a third of people with Parkinson’s disease. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep, and emotional problems. The main motor symptoms are collectively called parkinsonism or a parkinsonian syndrome. The cause of Parkinson’s disease is generally unknown, but believed to involve both genetic and environmental factors. The motor symptoms of the disease result from the death of cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain. Diagnosis of typical cases is mainly based on symptoms, with tests such as neuroimaging being used to rule out other diseases.
Neuro Paediatrics and Neurorehabilitation
Neuro Peadiatrics deals with the study of treatment programs for infants, children and adolescents with neurological problems affecting the nervous system. It treats children with brain and neurological conditions with a multidisciplinary approach led by neuro physicians. The pediatric neurology service coordinates medical treatment and therapy for children with neurological conditions. Some of the specialties include are concussion, neonatal neurology, brain malformations, headache migraine, metabolic diseases affecting the nervous system, neuro-oncology, pediatric sleep disorders, developmental disorders including autism, pediatric neuromuscular disorders including muscular dystrophy and congenital myopathies, neurological complications of other pediatric diseases.
Neuroanaesthesia and Critical Care
Neuroanaesthesia deals with the studies on giving anaesthesia to patients undergoing neurosurgery. It evolved to a subspecialty that combines the rapidly advancing basic and clinical neuroscience knowledge with the knowledge of anaesthesia to improve the outcomes of neurological patients. The specialty also has been able to contribute to the understanding of some of the basic phenomena in neurosciences. Wake craniotomy has become an option to preserve function during surgery in the proximity of eloquent areas of brain speech area, motor area. Providing a calm and relaxed patient without the risk of airway obstruction is a challenge. Monitored anaesthesia care and asleep-awake-asleep techniques have been used with success. Endoscopic neurosurgery with its advantages of minimal invasion and clear depiction of the structures is becoming more common.
Alzheimer’s disease and Dementia
Alzheimer’s is the most common cause of dementia, a general term for memory loss and other cognitive abilities serious enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer’s is a progressive disease, where dementia symptoms gradually worsen over a number of years. In its early stages, memory loss is mild, but with late-stage Alzheimer’s, individuals lose the ability to carry on a conversation and respond to their environment. Alzheimer’s is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Those with Alzheimer’s live an average of eight years after their symptoms become noticeable to others, but survival can range from four to 20 years, depending on age and other health conditions. Alzheimer’s disease accounts for 60 percent to 80 percent of dementia cases. The greatest known risk factor is increasing age and the majority of people with Alzheimer’s are 65 and older. Alzheimer’s is not just a disease of old age. Approximately 200,000 Americans under the age of 65 have younger-onset Alzheimer’s disease.
Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the central and peripheral nervous systems and their subdivisions, the autonomic and somatic nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle. Neurological practice relies heavily on the field of neuroscience. Neuroscience deals with the scientific study of the nervous system. Neurology involves in clinical research, clinical trials, and basic or translational research. While neurology is a nonsurgical specialty its corresponding surgical specialty is neurosurgery. Significant overlap occurs between the fields of neurology and psychiatry with the boundary between the two disciplines and the conditions they treat being somewhat nebulous.
Cognitive neuroscience deals with the study of the biological processes and aspects that underlie cognition with a specific focus on the neural connections in the brain. Cognitive neuroscience is a branch of both neuroscience and psychology overlapping with disciplines such as behavioral neuroscience, cognitive psychology, physiological psychology and affective neuroscience. It addresses the questions of how cognitive activities are affected or controlled by neural circuits in the brain. Cognitive neuroscientists should have a background in experimental psychology, neurobiology, neurology, physics, and mathematics. Neurons play the most vital role, since the main point is to establish an understanding of cognition from a neural perspective along with the different lobes of the cerebral cortex. This session further discusses the latest advancements in cognitive neuroscience.
Stem Cells Approach for Neurological Disorders
Neurologists in their clinical practice are faced with inquiries about the suitability of stem cell approaches by patients with a variety of acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Stem cell approaches are appealing for addressing therapeutic options in neurological disorders with unsatisfactory or unproven treatment strategies, including stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative dementias, muscular dystrophy, and spinal cord injury. The transplantation approach by means of stem cells of different origin has been suggested for the treatment of neurological diseases. Moreover, the translation of these results into clinical trials with human subjects is difficult and has so far met with little success. This session discusses the reasons for such difficulties review seeks to discuss the difficulties and bottlenecks in stem cells approach in neurological disorders.
Neuropathology is the study of disease of nervous system tissues. IT is performed in small surgical biopsies or whole-body autopsies. The primary concern is the diagnosis of brain tumours, and neuropathologists are often able to give a preliminary diagnosis to the neurosurgeon. Neuropathologists work closely with the clinical disciplines of neurology and neurosurgery. Opinions and interpretations of special stains and molecular tests will guide other multidisciplinary teams deciding upon treatment strategies. Neuropathology also relates to forensic pathology because brain disease or brain injury can be related to cause of death. Neuropathology should not be confused with neuropathy, which refers to disorders of the nerves themselves in the peripheral nervous system. This session discusses more advanced latest discoveries in the field of neuropathology.
Central Nervous System
The central nervous system or CNS is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord. The brain is encased in the skull and protected by the cranium. The spinal cord is continuous with the brain and lies caudally to the brain, and is protected by the vertebrae. The spinal cord reaches from the base of the skull continues through or starting below the foramen magnum terminating roughly level with the first or second lumbar vertebra occupying the upper sections of the vertebral canal. The central nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord is referred to as “central” because it combines information from the entire body and coordinates activity across the whole organism. This session discusses the latest developments and the latest technologies in the fields of research, diagnosis, treatment interventions.
Neuropsychiatry deals with the study of mental disorders attributable or relating to diseases of the nervous system. Neuropsychiatry combines the current disciplines of psychiatry and neurology. Though psychiatry and neurology are two separate entities have combined together known as neuropsychiatry. Neuropsychiatry also overlaps the fields of neuropsychology and behavioral neurology. Neuropsychiatry deals with the difficulties and neurological conditions which include neurodegenerative disorders, stroke, seizures, encephalitis, movement disorders, traumatic brain injury, demyelinating diseases etc. Also neuropsychiatry deals with psychological and or behavioral conditions or symptoms such as mania, aggression, obsessions, self-injurious behaviors, anxiety, compulsions, psychosis, and depression and so on. This session further discusses the latest developments in neuropsychiatry, its research and treatment interventions.
Neurosurgery, which is also known as brain surgery, deals with prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and cerebrovascular system. The precise planning and performance of neurosurgical procedures on the brain, spine, spinal cord and peripheral nerves require the operating surgeon‘s utmost concentration. Every decision and every step in neurosurgery carries risks and must be approached with caution. Every surgery is strongly connected with hopes and fears of the patient and their relatives in anticipation of a full recovery. This session discusses the latest technological developments in the research field of neurosurgery.
Neuroimmunology is a field combining neuroscience which deals with the study of the nervous system; and immunology deals with the study of the immune system. Neuroimmunologists seek to understand the interactions of these two complex sciences during development, homeostasis, and response to injuries. Neuroimmunology contributes to development of new pharmacological treatments for several neurological conditions. Both nervous system and immune system interact with the functioning of two systems in health and disease, malfunction of one or both systems that leads to disorders, and the physical, chemical, and environmental stressors that affect the two systems on a daily basis. This session discusses the various developments in neuroimmunology.
Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function and or pharmacology of the nervous system. Physicians who specialize in the performance and interpretation of neuroimaging in the clinical setting are neuroradiologists. Neuroimaging falls into two broad categories which include structural imaging and functional imaging. Functional imaging enables the processing of information by centers in the brain to be visualized directly. Such processing causes the involved area of the brain to increase metabolism and “light up” on the scan. One of the more controversial uses of neuroimaging has been the research into “thought identification” or mind-reading. This session further discusses the latest developments in neuroimaging.
Neurogenetics is the study of neuroscience and genetics combined together focusing in particular how the genetic code an organism carries affects its expressed traits. The field of neurogenetics emerged in the mid to late 1900s. Neurogenetics studies the role of genetics and functions of the nervous system. It considers neural characteristics as phenotypes manifestations, measurable or not, of the genetic make-up of an individual, and is mainly based on the observation that the nervous systems of individuals even of those belonging to the same species may not be identical. Mutations in this genetic sequence can have a wide range of effects on the quality of life of the individual. Neurological diseases, behavior and personality are all studied in the context of neurogenetics. This session discusses more about the latest developments in the study of neurogenetics
Geriatric neurology deals with the study of neurologic disorders in elderly. Neurologic conditions, especially dementia and stroke are leading causes of disability and institutionalization in the elderly. These age-associated conditions are identified in current clinical practices. Geriatric medicine and geriatric psychiatry have been formally recognized and are popular but the development of geriatric neurology has lagged behind. Geriatric clinical neurology is evolving in response to major changes in demography and prevalence rates of diseases associated with advanced age. The aging nervous system offers challenges in placing disease and treatment in respect of predicted aging changes in neurochemistry, neurohistology, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuroimmunology. This session discusses the treatment interventions in geriatric neurology.
Cognitive neurology deals with the study of cognitive neuroscience dealing with the biological processes and aspects that underlie cognition with a specific focus on the neural connections in the brain. Cognitive Neurology addresses the questions of how cognitive activities are affected or controlled by neural circuits in the brain. Cognitive neurology deals with the study of both neuroscience and psychology, overlapping with disciplines such as behavioral neuroscience, cognitive psychology, physiological psychology and affective neuroscience. Cognitive neurology relies upon theories in cognitive science coupled with evidence from neurobiology, and computational modeling. Methods employed in cognitive neurology or neuroscience includes psychophysical experiments, functional neuroimaging, electrophysiological studies of neural systems and cognitive genomics and behavioral genetics. This session discusses latest research and technologies in cognitive neurology.
Neurodegenerative disorder is a condition in which the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons happens. Neurodegenerative disorders or diseases are incurable resulting in progressive degeneration and or death of nerve cells causing problems with movements or mental functioning. The neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich’s ataxia, Huntington’s disease, Prion disease, Spinocerebellar ataxia, Spinal muscular atrophy, Motor neurone diseases, Huntington’s disease, Lewy body disease and etc. Depending on the type of disorder degenerative nerve diseases can be serious or life-threatening. Most of them have no cure. Treatments may help improve symptoms, relieve pain, and increase mobility. This session discusses various methods, technologies and medical interventions in treating patients suffering from neurodegenerative disorder.
A neurological disorder is a disorder of the nervous system. A range of symptoms obtained out of structural, biochemical or electrical abnormalities in the brain, spinal cord and or other nerves. Symptoms such as include paralysis, muscle weakness, poor coordination, loss of sensation, seizures, confusion, pain and altered levels of consciousness. Neurological disorders are assessed by neurological examination, studied and treated within the specialties of neurology and clinical neuropsychology. Interventions for neurological disorders include preventative measures, lifestyle changes, physiotherapy, other therapy, neurorehabilitation, pain management, medication, or surgeries performed by neurosurgeons. This session discusses many neurological disorders and its diagnostic and treatment interventions in the light of emerging advanced technologies.
Behavioral neurology is a subspecialty of neurology that studies the neurological basis of behavior, memory, and cognition, the impact of neurological damage and disease upon these functions, and the treatment thereof. Two fields associated with behavioral neurology are neuropsychiatry and neuropsychology. Behavioral neurology is that specialty of one which deals with the study of neurological basis of behavior, memory, and cognition, and their impact of damage and disease and treatment. Syndromes and diseases commonly studied by behavioral neurology include are epilepsy, autism, dementia, attention deficit, psychosis, amnesias, stroke, aprosodias, traumatic brain injury, ataxias, dyslexia, hyperactivity disorder, hemispatial neglect. The advent of in vivo neuroimaging in the 1980s led to a further interest in cognitive neurosciences providing a tool that allowed for lesion, structural, and functional correlations with behavioral dysfunction in living people. This session discusses more about behavioral neurology.
Neural Development aims to discover how the nervous system arises and acquires the abilities to sense the world and control adaptive motor output. It deals with research that use molecular, cellular, physiological or behavioral methods to provide novel insights into the mechanisms that underlie the formation of the nervous system as well as its renewal and regeneration in adults. The field includes analysis of how progenitor cells form a nervous system during embryogenesis and how the initially formed neural circuits are shaped by experience during early postnatal life as well as renewal and regeneration in adults. Some studies use well-established genetically accessible model systems to study behavioral or evolutionary insights. This session further discusses more about Neural Development.
Neuromuscular Disorders, Spinal Disorders And Peripheral Neuropathies
Neuromuscular disorders are diseases caused by impairment of the motor unit comprising the lower motor neuron, nerve root, peripheral nerve, myoneural junction and muscle. Neuromuscular diseases are divided into disorders that involve cranial and spinal motor neurons, spinal nerve roots, nerve plexuses, peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junctions and muscles. The evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition is not routinely needed to help facilitate a diagnosis of a suspected neuromuscular disease. Alterations in CSF composition have been reported in a variety of neuromuscular diseases due to the transudation of serum proteins, the release of intracellular substances from degenerating cells, the recruitment of inflammatory cells and/or the production of cytokines and other signaling molecules. This session discusses more about Neuromuscular Disorders, Spinal Disorders and Peripheral Neuropathies.
Neuro Therapeutics, Diagnostics and Case Studies
Neuro Therapeutics, Diagnostics and Case Studies cover research on experimental treatments of neurological disorders. It is concerned with the treatment options for a variety of disorders such as acute neck and lower back pain, spine disorders, spine injuries and migraine headaches. Neuro therapeutics interprets diagnosis and treatment of neuro disorders from a patient’s point of view. It reads and interprets existing imaging already performed MRI, CT, X-ray or order new imaging. This helps in discussing and implementing a plan of care for specific treatments, which includes therapy, medication, a home regimen, or the performance of interventional procedures including epidural steroid injections, nerve root blocks or other pain alleviating techniques.
Challenges to Neurosurgeons
Neurology as a distinct specialty is relatively new in the history of medicine. Beginning with Charcot, who built his neurology on a firm phenomenologic basis, the specialty of neurology was developed rapidly by such outstanding clinicians as Babinski, Duchenne, Erb, Marie, and Hughlings Jackson. In the 19th century, clinical observations increasingly were linked to neuroanatomical substrates. At the turn of the century, neuropathology gained a foothold, and clinical methods were developed further by such luminaries as Ramón y Cajal. A cadre of superb clinicians emerged. Mentored by superb clinicians neurologists were able to predict things other physicians could not often with startling accuracy. But the specialty was plagued by lack of definitive studies to confirm clinical impressions, and an even more pervasive paucity of treatments for most neurologic conditions which exacted such a heavy human toll.
The field of neurological surgery is well suited for the incorporation of robotic assistance. The past two decades have seen the rapid development and commercialization of numerous robotic systems in surgery. In terms of growth and adoption, the laparoscopic/thoracoscopic platforms such as the da Vinci Surgical System have experienced the greatest increases, and in 2015 over 700,000 surgical procedures were performed using this system. Growth in this area continues, and it has been projected that use of the robot for procedures such as a minimally invasive colectomy will increase over the next 10 years by 38%. Traditionally several aspects of our subspecialty lend themselves to the need and implementation of robotics. The development of the CyberKnife by John Adler, a neurosurgeon at Stanford University represented perhaps the first true modern application of robotic surgery. The CyberKnife was the first platform that allowed for the entire procedure to be executed without direct surgeon-patient contact and with full control from a remote location. As such, it represented the actualization of robotic neurosurgery.
Skull base Neurosurgery
Skull base surgery may be done to remove both noncancerous and cancerous growths, and abnormalities on the underside of the brain, the skull base, or the top few vertebrae of the spinal column. Because this is such a difficult area to see and reach, skull base surgery may be done by a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure. In this procedure, the surgeon inserts instruments through the natural openings in the skull—the nose or mouth—or by making a small hole just above the eyebrow. This type of surgery requires a team of specialists that may include ENT ear, nose, and throat surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons, neurosurgeons, and radiologists. Skull base surgery can be done in two main ways. Although the preferred method is endoscopic, open surgery is also an option, depending on the type of growth that needs to be removed and its location.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) disrupts the normal function of the brain. Neurotrauma is a head or spine injury caused by a sudden injury. It includes concussions, traumatic brain injuries (TBI), skull fractures, spinal column fractures, and spinal cord injuries (SCI). This condition can adversely affect a person’s quality of life with cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and physical symptoms that limit interpersonal, social, and occupational functioning. Although many systems exist, the simplest classification includes mild, moderate, and severe Traumatic Brain Injury depending on the nature of injury and the impact on the patient’s clinical status. Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury require prompt evaluation and multidisciplinary management. Aside from the type and severity of the TBI, recovery is influenced by individual patient characteristics, social and environmental factors, and access to medical and rehabilitation services.
Functional Neurosurgery treats patients with treatment resistant neurological disorders such as epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, chronic pain and spasticity. The surgical division of the Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center benefits from one of the largest referral bases and clinical volumes in the country. Procedures regularly performed for the treatment of epilepsy include implants for long-term invasive monitoring, stereotactic EEG, resective surgeries, such as lobectomies and seizure focus resection; disconnection surgeries, such ascorpus callosotomy; vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) implants; responsive neurostimulator (RNS) implants; stereotactic laser ablation. Patients with movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia and essential tremor, are generally treated by Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) after medical management has failed.
Clinical Neurology and Neuropsychiatry
Clinical neurology is a branch of neuroscience that focuses on the scientific study of fundamental mechanisms that underlie diseases and disorders of the brain and central nervous system. It seeks to develop new ways of diagnosing such disorders and ultimately of developing novel treatments. A clinical neuroscientist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field. Clinicians-including psychiatrists, neurologists, clinical psychologists and other medical specialists use basic research findings from neuroscience in general and clinical neuroscience in particular to develop diagnostic methods and ways to prevent and treat neurological disorders. Such disorders include addiction Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar disorder, brain tumors, depression, Down syndrome, dyslexia, epilepsy, Huntington’s disease, multiple sclerosis, neurological AIDS, neurological trauma, pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, sleep disorders, stroke and Tourette syndrome.
Neurotoxicology and Computational Neuroscience
Neurotoxicology deals with research on the effects of toxic substances on the nervous system of humans and experimental animals of all ages. The Journal emphasizes papers dealing with the neurotoxic effects of environmentally significant chemical hazards, manufactured drugs and naturally occurring compounds. It deals with the effects of neurotoxicants on other systems such as reproductive, endocrine, immune or processes metabolic. It determines chemical concentrations and cellular-level interactions in target tissue; determine changes in gene and protein expression associated with chemical exposures; effect high-throughput, comprehensive cognitive or behavioral assessments; employ multiple species including nonhuman primates, rodents, and, in some cases, humans, in the risk-assessment process to reduce the uncertainty associated with extrapolating findings across species; develop novel histochemical tracers to aid in the evaluation of chemical-induced pathologies.
Psychology and Mental Disorders
Headache disorders, characterized by recurrent headache, are among the most common disorders of the nervous system. Headache itself is a painful and disabling feature of a small number of primary headache disorders, namely migraine, tension-type headache, and cluster headache. Headache can also be caused by or occur secondarily to a long list of other conditions, the most common of which is medication-overuse headache.
Alcohol addiction is a disease that changes the way the brain works. It causes negative emotions, impulsive behavior, cravings and withdrawal symptoms. Treatment for alcohol addiction includes supervised detox, counseling and therapy, and support group participation.
Novel Therapeutic Strategies
Novel Therapeutic Strategies in Neurology and Neuro Disorders represents a major health and disability problem. Despite important advances in pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, its primary causes still remain elusive, accurate biomarkers are not well characterized, and the available pharmacological treatments are not cost-effective. Diverse environmental factors, cerebrovascular dysfunction and epigenetic phenomena, together with structural and functional genomic dysfunctions lead to amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation and premature neuronal death. During the last 20 years, over 1000 different compounds have been studied as potential candidate drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. The implementation of pharmacogenomic strategies will contribute to optimize drug development and therapeutics in AD and related disorders. This session discusses further developments in Novel Therapeutic Strategies relating to neurology and neuro disorders.
Autonomic Neurology focuses on clinical scenarios organized on three parts. The first part reviews the anatomical and biochemical mechanisms of central and peripheral nervous system, control of autonomic function, principles of autonomic pharmacology and a clinical and laboratory approach to the diagnosis of autonomic disorders. The second part focuses on the pathophysiology and management of orthostatic hypotension, postural tachycardia, baroreflex failure; syncope, disorders of sweating, neurogenic bladder and sexual dysfunction, gastrointestinal dysmotility and autonomic hyperactivity. The final part is devoted to specific autonomic disorders, including central neurodegenerative disorders; common peripheral neuropathies with prominent autonomic failure; painful small fiber neuropathies; autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathies and neuropathies; focal brain disorders; focal spinal cord disorders and chronic pain disorders with autonomic
Pediatric neurology involves the study of child neurology and the diseases and disorders of the spinal cord, brain, peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system, muscles and blood vessels that affect individuals in these age groups. Pediatric Neurology is a specialized branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and management of neurological conditions in neonates or newborns, infants, children and adolescents. The discipline of child neurology encompasses diseases and disorders. The conditions dealt with by pediatric neurology vary considerably, from relatively simple disorders such as migraine or cerebral palsy through to more complex and rare conditions such as metabolic disease or neurodegenerative disorders. This session discusses more about paediatric neurology and the latest treatment interventions in it.
Neuro-oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, several of them are very dangerous and life-threatening such as astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma and brain stem tumors. Among the malignant brain cancers, gliomas of the brainstem and pons, glioblastoma multiforme and high-grade or highly anaplastic astrocytoma are the worst. Surgery may in some cases be curative but as a general rule, malignant brain cancers tend to regenerate and emerge from remission easily, especially highly malignant cases. In such cases, the goal is to excise as much of the tumor cells and as much of the tumor margin as possible without endangering vital functions or other important cognitive abilities. This session discusses Neuro oncology and its treatments.
Neural engineering combines both studies in biomedical engineering that uses engineering techniques to understand, repair, replace, enhance or otherwise exploit the properties of neural systems. The main goal of neural engineering is to restore and augment of human function via direct interactions between the nervous system and artificial devices. Neural engineering solves design problems at the interface of living neural tissue and non-living constructs. The field of neural engineering draws on the fields of computational neuroscience, experimental neuroscience, clinical neurology, electrical engineering and signal processing of living neural tissue, and encompasses elements from robotics, cybernetics, computer engineering, neural tissue engineering, materials science and nanotechnology. This session discusses more about neural engineering.